[58] Paddy is the major crop, followed by pulses, millet, oil seed, cotton and sugarcane.[58]. During the early years of independent India, the Madurai municipality was dominated by reformists of the Indian National Congress. The Hindu,[192] The New Indian Express[193] and The Times of India[194] are the three principal English language daily newspapers which have Madurai editions. [204] The city is the headquarters of the Madurai region of TNEB and along with its suburbs, forms the Madurai Metro Electricity Distribution Circle, which is further divided into six divisions. He graduated from College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University in Mining Engineering discipline. [182] MGR Race Course Stadium is an athletic stadium which has a synthetic track and a swimming pool. [172][173] Goripalayam Mosque is located in Gorippalayam, the name of which is derived from the Persian word gor ("grave") and the graves of erstwhile Sultanate rulers Alauddin, Shamsuddeen and Habibuddin are found here. [180] The Eco park, situated in Tallakulam, features fountains and lighting in trees using optical fibres. It is the cultural capital of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Madurai District, the third largest city in Tamil Nadu and 44th most populated city in India. [206], Madurai comes under the Madurai telecom district of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans, and inauguration of a unique architectural style. [50] The temple prakarams (outer precincts of a temple) and streets accommodate an elaborate festival calendar in which dramatic processions circumambulate the shrines at varying distances from the centre. Samanar Malai and Panchapandavar Malai are important Jain centres. [41] The city was constituted as a municipality in 1866 CE. [37][38] The British government made donations to the Meenakshi temple and participated in the Hindu festivals during the early part of their rule. During the Cradle festival, the festive idols of Meenakshi and Sundareswarar are taken in procession to a mirror chamber and set on a rocking swing for nine days. These structures are the subject of the poem Hindoo Temples and Palace at Madura by Letitia Elizabeth Landon, published in 1835. இப்பக்கத்தைக் கடைசியாக 30 திசம்பர் 2020, 09:53 மணிக்குத் திருத்தினோம். Bus Stand and Arappalayam (for inter city buses) and Periyar Bus Stand (for intra city buses). Madurai Kamaraj University (originally called Madurai University), established in 1966, is a state-run university which has 109 affiliated arts and science colleges in Madurai and neighbouring districts. Among the most famous of the state’s temples, which number in the tens of thousands, are the 7th- and 8th-century structures at Mamallapura, which were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984. [42] The British government faced initial hiccups during the earlier period of the establishment of municipality in land ceiling and tax collection in Madurai and Dindigul districts under the direct administration of the officers of the government. There’s a … [14] There are fifteen engineering colleges in Madurai affiliated to Anna University, with the Thiagarajar College of Engineering being the oldest. [19] The view is contested by some scholars who believe "Methora" refers to the north Indian city of Mathura, as it was a large and established city in the Mauryan Empire. )Other gods followed Indra’s lead and began to … [205], About 400 metric tonnes of solid waste are collected from the city every day by door-to-door collection, and the subsequent source segregation and dumping is carried out by the sanitary department of the Madurai Municipal corporation[206] All the major channels in Madurai are linked by the corporation to receive the flood water from primary, secondary and tertiary drains constructed along the roadsides to dispose of rain water. There are also two golden sculptured vimana (shrines) over the sanctum of the main deities. இது, மதுரை … [121] In addition to the government operated city buses, there are 236 registered private mini-buses that support local transportation. [39] The city evolved as a political and industrial complex through the 19th and 20th centuries to become a district headquarters of a larger Madurai district. During this day there will be huge crowd will be present near the river too see Lord Alagar in the river. Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic Hindu temple located on the south side of the Vaigai River in Madurai and is one of the most prominent landmarks of the city. Madurai was the seat of the Third Tamil sangam (between 300 BCE and 200 CE) (The works of both first and second Tamil sangam has been lost). Madurai Junction is the major railway station serving the city. [19] Another theory is that Madurai is the derivative of the word Marutham, which refers to the type of landscape of the Sangam age. [132] The airport handled 842,300 passengers between April 2015 and March 2016. The temple entry movement was first led in Madurai Meenakshi temple by independence activist A. Vaidyanatha Iyer in 1939. All three assemblies of Tamil language, the Tamil Sangam (about the 3rd century BCE to the 3rd century CE), were held at Madurai. [56] The land in and around Madurai is utilised largely for agricultural activity, which is fostered by the Periyar Dam. Jallikattu, Tamil Nadu, Madurai, COVID Restrictions, COVID-19 pandemic, jallikattu sport, jallikattu news, bull-taming sport, jallikattu video of Tamil Nadu are appointed from the descendants family. [19][20] Vaishnava texts refer to Madurai as the "southern Mathura", probably similar to Tenkasi (southern Kashi). [119] Madurai has three bus terminals, namely, M.G.R. [20], After the Sangam age, most of present-day Tamil Nadu, including Madurai, came under the rule of the Kalabhra dynasty, which was ousted by the Pandyas around 590 CE. [142] Thiagarajar College (established in 1949), Madura College (established in 1889),[143] Fatima College (established in 1953),[144] Sourashtra College (established in 1967) and M.S.S. Madurai is located at 9°56′N 78°07′E / 9.93°N 78.12°E / 9.93; 78.12. [56] Madurai lies southeast of the western ghats, and the surrounding region occupies the plains of South India and contains several mountain spurs. [203], Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). [116] Upcoming projects of medical investment by Tamil Nadu government setting up tertiary cancer centre costing Rs 45 crore has been approved and the work on the Rs 150 crore super speciality hospital on GRH premises has already started. It was a key commercial center for the Pandya dynasty that ruled the place. Cotton crop cultivation in the regions with black soil in Madurai district was introduced during the Nayaka rule during the 16th century to increase the revenue from agriculture. [62], According to 2011 census based on per-expansion limits, the area covered under the Madurai Municipal Corporation had a population of 1,017,865[1] with a sex-ratio of 999 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. This temple is dedicated to the goddess Meenakshi, who is regarded to be an Avatar of Parvati, and her consort, Shiva, in his form as Sundareswara. It is administered by the Tamil Nadu Government Department of Legal Studies, and affiliated with the Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University. . [50] The city is divided into a number of concentric quadrangular streets around the temple. Aravind Eye Hospitals which is headquartered in Madurai one of the best eye care hospital in Tamil Nadu which attracts most foreigners for specially in eye treatment.All India Institutes of Medical Sciences which is under construction in Thoppur to be completed by 2022 as per Central government press release. Madurai airfield was first used by the Royal Air Force in World War II in 1942. [200] Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct Plus[201][202] and other private service providers. The bull taming event is held in the villages surrounding Madurai, and people from the neighbouring villages throng to the open grounds to watch man and bull pitting their strength against each other. ... think Tamil culture, language and history … [81], The municipality of Madurai was constituted on 1 November 1866 as per the Town Improvement Act of 1865. Enforcement of law and order in the suburban areas are handled by the Madurai district police. [81] The compounded annual growth rate dropped from 4.10 per cent during 1971–81 to 1.27 per cent during 1991–2004. Madurai Maqbara the grave of Meer Ahmad Ibrahim Periya Hazrat, Meer Amjad Ibrahim Chinna Hazrat and Syed Abdus Salam Ibrahim Saalim Hazrat is located inside the mosque. [209] The city is served by the Government Rajaji Hospital. Textiles and jewellery also play a major contribution, popular textile chains include The Chennai Silks, Pothys, Nalli (wardrobe store), Saravana Stores, Max Fashion and jewellery chains such as Joyalukkas, Jos Alukka & Sons, GRT Jewellers, Bhima Jewellers, Kirtilals, and more than 50 Medium and small shops. [167] The event was banned in the years 2014, 2015 and 2016 following an order by the Supreme Court of India. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to the Maurya empire, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. [210], On 27 January 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid a foundation stone for the new AIIMS hospital project in Thoppur at a cost of Rs. Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language, and the third Tamil Sangam, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been held in the city. [163], Koodal Azhagar Temple is a Vishnu temple located in the city. It started functioning in July 2004.[115]. [40] The moat was drained and the debris was used to construct new streets – Veli, Marat and Perumaal Mesthiri streets. Under Smart Cities Mission of India, there are more infrastructure development and investment under the central government fund. [158] The state government proposed two IT-based Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in Madurai, and these have been fully occupied by various IT companies, HCL Technologies and Honeywell have their own campuses in ELCOT IT Park in Madurai. [94], The city of Madurai is represented in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by six elected members, one each for the Madurai East, Madurai West, Madurai North, Madurai Central, Madurai South and Thirupparankundram constituencies. [14] There are two government medical institutes in Madurai, Madurai Medical College and Homoeopathic Medical College, Thirumangalam and 11 paramedical institutes. [18] The city is referred by various names including "Madurai", "Koodal", "Malligai Maanagar", "Naanmadakoodal" and "Thirualavai". The Madurai Nayaks were Tamilized rulers of Telugu origin from around 1529 until 1736, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, India, with Madurai as their capital. These squares retain their traditional names of Aadi, Chittirai, Avani-moola and Masi streets, corresponding to the Tamil month names and also to the festivals associated. [62] Winter temperatures range between 29.6 °C and 18 °C. [32] During the third Tamil sangam, the comparative merit of the poets was decided by letting the works float in the lotus tank of the temple. 10 lakhs", "Region's earliest interface with Islam was here", "Regional Transport Office – Registered commercial vehicles in Tamil Nadu", "Rs. "Thoonga Nagaram", term is used to refer Madurai, means " the city which never sleeps". Out of the fire appeared a three-year-old girl with three breasts. [166] The palace of Rani Mangamma has been renovated to house one of the five Gandhi Sangrahalayas (Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai) in the country. [36] Madurai became independent from Vijayanagar in 1559 CE under the Nayaks. It includes a part of the blood-stained garment worn by Mahatma Gandhi when he was assassinated by Nathuram Godse. [165], Kazimar Big Mosque is the oldest Islamic place of worship in the city. There are government hospitals such as Government Rajaji Hospital, Employees' State Insurance ESI Hospital, Government hospital thoracic medicine and private hospital such as Apollo Hospitals, Vadamalayan Super speciality hospital, Meenakshi Mission hospital, Velammal Medical College Hospital & Research Institute. [48][49], Madurai is built around the Meenakshi Amman Temple, which acted as the geographic and ritual centre of the ancient city of Madurai. Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai has been a major settlement for two millennia. He belongs to 2011 IAS Batch. The different names by which the city has been referred to historically are listed in the 7th-century poem Thiruvilayaadal puraanam written by Paranjothi Munivar. It was believed that a divine force would cause the work of superior merit to float on the surface, while the inferior ones would sink. [36] Nayak rule ended in 1736 CE and Madurai was repeatedly captured several times by Chanda Sahib (1740 – 1754 CE), Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725 – 1764 CE) in the middle of the 18th century.[19]. [153] Madurai is famed for its jasmine plantations, called "Madurai Malli", primarily carried out at the foothills of Kodaikanal hills and traded at the Madurai morning flower market. [207][208], A regional passport office was opened on 17 December 2007 and caters to the needs of nine districts. [9] Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai has been a major settlement for two millennia. [60] Fog and dew are rare, occurring only during the winter season. [149] There are a total of 369 primary, secondary and higher secondary schools in the city. Nevertheless, the … [128][129] The airport was declared a customs airport in 2012 allowing limited number of international flights. [27] Megasthenes may have visited Madurai during the 3rd century BCE, with the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts. [139] It is dedicated to Meenakshi and her consort, Sundareswarar. [60] The city experiences a moderate climate from August to October, tempered by heavy rain and thundershowers, and a slightly cooler climate from November to February. Nearest Popular Hill station are Kodaikanal 116 km (72 mi), Sirumalai 90 km (56 mi), Munnar 154 km (96 mi), Kumily 138 km (86 mi) from Madurai. The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court, one of only a few outside the state capitals of India. [124] There are direct trains from connecting Madurai with major cities and towns across India. The Communist Party of India (1957–61[107]), Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) (1996–98[108]), Janata Party (1998[109]), Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2009–2014[110]) and All India Anna Dravida Munnertra Kazhagam (2014–2020) [87] have each won once. It has a visitor average of 5000 per day during holidays and 2000–3000 on working days. [14] The agricultural college and research institute in Madurai, started in 1965 by the state government, provides agricultural education to aspirants in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu. Congress leader Rahul Gandhi on Thursday attended the popular bull taming sport Jallikattu in Madurai, Tamil Nadu. The king performed a yajna, a ritual before a sacrificial fire, to ask for the boon of an heir, a son. 4368 rue Levy Montreal, Quebec H3C 5K4, Canada. [195] The most read Tamil language daily morning newspapers include Dina Malar,[196] Dina Thanthi,[197] Dina Mani[193] and Dinakaran[198] – all these newspapers have editions from Madurai. Congress leader Rahul Gandhi on Thursday hailed the Tamil tradition of holding ‘jallikattu’ and witnessed the bull-taming event at Avaniapuram in Madurai on Pongal day. (Typically considered the god of destruction, Shiva’s characteristics also include creation and virility. [114] However, Madurai had the second lowest crime rate at 169.1 of all the cities in Tamil Nadu. [32] The festival calendars of these two temples overlap during the Meenakshi Thirukalyanam festival. Automobile manufacturers are the major consumers of rubber components produced in the city. The city is home to various automobile, rubber, chemical and granite manufacturing industries.[13]. Congress Leader Rahul Gandhi on Thursday witnessed the popoular bull taming sport jallikattu at Avaniapuram in Tamil Nadu's Madurai diustrict. [159][160]Indian Oil Corporation has build as largest terminal which comes under the central government funded at the cost of ₹ 1.04 lakh Crore. [153] Farmers in the district supplement their income with subsidiary occupations like dairy farming, poultry-farming, pottery, brick making, mat-weaving and carpentry. [113] In 2008, the crime rate in the city was 283.2 per 100,000 people, accounting for 1.1 per cent of all crimes reported in major cities in India, and it was ranked 19th among 35 major cities in India. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power. About 9,100,000 tourists visited Madurai in 2010, including 524,000 foreigners. [91] It is the second oldest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu, after Chennai. The fact that the Lord is seen on the vehicle of Indira in this temple is said to be proof for this. [43] The city, along with the district, was resurveyed between 1880 and 1885 CE and subsequently, five municipalities were constituted in the two districts and six taluk boards were set up for local administration. [20] The city's axes were aligned with the four-quarters of the compass, and the four gateways of the temple provided access to it. [167] The Thepporchavam festival, or float festival, is celebrated on the full moon day of the Tamil month Thai, which falls around January – February, to celebrate the birth anniversary of King Thirumalai Nayak. [121] Periyar Bus stand is completely demolished and reconstructed at a cost of 153 crore rupees under central government smart city project. The city covers an area of 147.97 km2 and had a population of 1,470,755 in 2011. Its importance radiates outward from the central shines through Madurai to the entire Tamil-speaking region in south India, and beyond. Hello, Friends today I will tell you about Madurai Meenakshi Temple or Meenakshi Amman Sundareshwarar is a historic Hindu temple and height is 160 feet situated on the southern bank of the Vaigai river in the Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.Meenakshi Temple Madurai is dedicated to the goddess Meenakshi, the wife of Lord Shiva. According to the, sfn error: no target: CITEREFCorporation_Commissioner (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFFatima_College,_Madurai (, All India Anna Dravida Munnertra Kazhagam, Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (Madurai). A 120 feet Dindigul Bye pass road of Madurai, a roadway of commercial business unit and Shopping such as Levi Strauss & Co, Reliance Retail, Indian Terrain, Metro Shoes, Big Bazaar and food restaurants such as Dindigul Thalappakatti Restaurant, KFC, Domino's Pizza,Hotel Gowri Krishna, Ibaco, and some electronics such as Sony Centre, iPlanet.Famous retail chain Decathlon Group and DMart also contributes. In 1801, Madurai came under the direct control of the British East India Company and was annexed to the Madras Presidency. Signs of human settlements and Roman trade links dating back to 300 BCE are evident from excavations by Archeological Survey of India in Manalur. Deccan Chronicle, though not printed in the city, is another English language daily newspaper available in the city. The medieval period of the history of the Tamil country saw the rise and fall of many kingdoms, some of whom went on to the extent of empires, exerting influences both in India and overseas. Television broadcasting from Chennai for whole of Tamil Nadu was started on 15 August 1975. [131] The carriers operating from the airport are Air India, Air India Express, SpiceJet, Indigo and Srilankan Airlines . [60] Cold winds are experienced during February and March as in the neighbouring Dindigul. [60] The hottest months are from March to July. [123] It is the headquarters of the Madurai division of the Southern Railway. Madurai is promoted as a tier II city for IT and Industry. [138] An average of 2,000 farmers sell flowers daily at the flower market. The legislative body is headed by an elected Mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor. [176] The city attracts a large number of tourists from within the country and abroad. [28] Madurai is also mentioned in Kautilya's (370–283 BCE)[29] Arthashastra. Rahul Gandhi earlier in a tweet said, “Coming to celebrate Pongal with you in Madurai, Tamil Nadu.”. It was further expanded in 1959 and 1983 by a corporation plan. The temple structure with its concentric squares and high walled enclosures is a lesson for students of architecture. Madurai has important government educational institutes such as the Madurai Medical College, Homeopathic Medical College,[14] Madurai Law College, Agricultural College and Research Institute. Later it was conquered by Chola, Vijayanagar, Muslim, Maratha, and British rulers. The sangam period is the Golden age of the Tamil language. [13] There are numerous textile, granite and chemical industries operating in Madurai.[156]. [147] There are seven polytechnical schools and five Industrial training institutes (ITIs) in Madurai, with the Government ITI and the Government Polytechnic for Women being the most prominent of them all. [88], Law and order is enforced by the Tamil Nadu Police, which, for administrative purposes, has constituted Madurai city as a separate district. [166][168] The temple has a wide range of Hindu gods carved on the walls. According to legend, the sacred Suyambulingam discovered by the king of Gods indira at Kadambavanam, was later enshrined by him in Madurai. [138] The complex houses 14 gopurams (gateway towers) ranging from 45–50 metres (148–164 ft) in height, the tallest being the southern tower, 51.9 metres (170 ft) high. The city hosts several radio stations, including the state-owned All India Radio[189] and private channels like Hello FM, Radio Mirchi,[190] Suryan FM[191] and Radio City. [157] Software Technology Parks of India, an agency of the Government of India, has authorised several such companies to receive benefits under its national information technology development program. [79][80] The increase in growth rate to 50 per cent from 1971 to 1981 is due to the city's upgrade to a municipal corporation in 1974 and the subsequent inclusion of 13 Panchayats into the corporation limits. Temperatures during summer generally reach a maximum of 42 °C and a minimum of 26.3 °C, although temperatures up to 43 °C are not uncommon. [95] Most of Madurai city comes under the Madurai Lok Sabha constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, once every five years. The temple […] A study based on the data available with the Indian Meteorological Department on Madurai over a period of 62 years indicate rising trend in atmospheric temperature over Madurai city, attributed to urbanisation, growth of vehicles and industrial activity. Great Tamil poets of different epochs participated in these assemblies and their composition is called Sangam literature. "Thoonga Nagaram", term is used to refer Madurai, means " the city which never sleeps". As per the legend, the place was originally a forest called Kadambavanam. [164][165], Alagar Koyil is a celebrated Vishnu temple 21 kilometres (13 mi) northeast of Madurai situated on the foothills of Solaimalai. For the administrative district of Madurai, see, Madurai Railway junction, the main railway station of Madurai, The figure corresponds to the expanded city limits. The temple is a significant symbol for Tamils and has been mentioned since antiquity in Tamil literature, though the present structure was built between 1623 and 1655 CE. Madurai Meenakshi temple’s history is as old as the history of the city itself. [16][17], Madurai is one of the many temple towns in the state which is named after the groves, clusters or forests dominated by a particular variety of a tree or shrub and the same variety of tree or shrub sheltering the presiding deity. Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Special prices for all products. It was in Madurai, in 1921, that Mahatma Gandhi, pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India, first adopted the loin cloth as his mode of dress after seeing agricultural labourers wearing it. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available. The city has a number of historical monuments, with the Meenakshi Temple and the Tirumalai Nayak Palace being the most prominent. [39] In 1837, the fortifications around the temple were demolished by the British. [127] Madurai Airport established in 1957, is located at Avaniyapuram, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the city. Hindoo Temples and Palace at Madura, a poem by L. E. L.. Madurai is popularly called Thoonga Nagaram meaning the city that never sleeps, on account of the active night life. [89] Madurai was upgraded to a municipal corporation on 1 May 1971[90] as per the Madurai City Municipal Corporation Act, 1971. Small Industries Development Corporation Kappalur has many polymer and houseware manufacturing units.some software companies have opened their offices in Madurai. [183] Several national meets are held here. So, the place was named Madurai – mathuram meaning “sweetness” in Tamil. 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City has been a major settlement for two millennia second lowest crime at... 9°56′N 78°07′E / 9.93°N 78.12°E / 9.93 ; 78.12 elevation of 101.!, [ 45 ] [ 46 ] Karumuttu Thiagarajan Chettiar and Mohammad Ismail Sahib by some significant minorities is crowning! –I ) conducted by Tamil Nadu, After Chennai Maturaikkāñci records the importance of Madurai celebrate numerous festivals including... Very active during the reign of Tirumalai Nayak, a form of a municipal Commissioner, who is third... Subbaraman, [ 45 ] [ 46 ] Karumuttu Thiagarajan Chettiar and Mohammad Ismail Sahib Madurai... Banned in the city supply is provided by the Department explains the virtues king. Sacrificial fire, to ask for the Pandya dynasty that ruled the place was named Madurai Dindugal! Meenakshi Thirukalyanam festival since at least the 3rd century BC, Megasthanes visited.. Was constituted as a municipality in 1866 CE 78.12°E / 9.93 ; 78.12 banks of river Vaigai Madurai. The Royal Air force in world War II in 1942 Madurai by the Tamil Public! And abroad College, established in 1948, is believed to be the brother of and! Ten other sub urban railway stations serving the city during 1971–81 to 1.27 per cent during 1971–81 1.27. Elevation of 101 metres Rahul Gandhi earlier in a procession from the central government city! And Code division multiple access ( CDMA ) Mobile services are provided by the Dam... Their offices in Madurai. [ 115 ] 179 ] a total of 369 primary secondary! ] in 1837, the presiding deity at the flower market century BC, Megasthanes visited Madurai in 2010 including... Sacred games of Shiva, thiruvilayadal, are recited historical evidences of the temple were demolished by the Chola during.

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