Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs, the culture hero, Quetzalcoatl. [8], In the era following the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, a number of records conflated Quetzalcoatl with Ce Acatl Topiltzin, a ruler of the mythico-historic city of Tollan. Mexico's flagship airline Aeroméxico has a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner painted in a special Quezalcoatl livery. [26] "For one year he lived a life of honor," the handsome young man "worshipped literally as the embodiment of the deity". Sometimes the mirror was shown on his chest, and sometimes smoke would emanate from the mirror. The first culture to use the symbol of a feathered serpent as an important religious and political symbol was Teotihuacan. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the surface of the earth but later became fierce enemies in the city of Tollan. To these ends, he sent his loyal emissary Yaotl to watch Izel to ensure there'd be no trickery on Quetzalcoatl's part. For most things, Quetzalcoatl endorses communication and prosperity with a smiling face, saying that “it is wonderful everybody’s fineee, so this elder sister is happy!”, but she becomes displeased when talking about alcohol and Tezcatlipoca. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war. (Read and Gonzalez 223) This version of the creation myth would play an important role i… His cult was associated with royalty, and was the subject of the most lengthy and reverent prayers in the rites of kingship, as well as being mentioned frequently in coronation speeches. Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. In the Aztec ritual calendar the Tonalpohualli Tezcatlipoca ruled the trecena 1 Ocelotl ("1 Jaguar")—he was also patron of the days with the name Acatl ("reed").[8]. He was overthrown by Tezcatlipoca, who saw that the people who lived under Quetzalcoatl were animalistic and uncivilized. 5D's, Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia, Beyblade: Metal Fusion and Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid (the latter depicting Quetzalcoatl as a female dragon deity); the Megami Tensei video game franchise; the video games Fate/Grand Order, Final Fantasy VIII, Final Fantasy XV, Sanitarium, Smite (as an alternate costume for his Mayan counterpart, Kukulkan), and Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine; as the main antagonist in the Star Trek: The Animated Series episode "How Sharper Than a Serpent's Tooth"; and in the last of The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel books. Quetzal feathers were a rare and precious commodity in the Aztec culture. In one of the Aztec accounts of creation, Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the world. In what manner shall I act for thy city? Quetzalcoatl was the third son of the dual creator god Ometeotl. "[15], Quetzalcoatl was also linked to rulership and priestly office; additionally, among the Toltec, it was used as a military title and emblem.[16]. Tlaloc, the god of rain, then became the sun. This talisman was a conch shell cut at the cross-section and was likely worn as a necklace by religious rulers, as such objects have been discovered in burials in archaeological sites throughout Mesoamerica,[7] and potentially symbolized patterns witnessed in hurricanes, dust devils, seashells, and whirlpools, which were elemental forces that had significance in Aztec mythology. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell and depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tezcatlipoca in codex illustrations. Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec god of wind, air, and learning, wears around his neck the "wind breastplate" ehēcacōzcatl, "the spirally voluted wind jewel" made of a conch shell. In later myths, the four gods who created the world, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black, the White, the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. The name Quetzalcoatl literally means "feathered snake". There is no question that the legend of Quetzalcoatl played a significant role in the colonial period. In one version of the Aztec creation account[19] the myth of the Five Suns, the first creation, "The Sun of the Earth" was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed into a jaguar. [16] More on the exact rituals, such as the Feast of Toxcatl will be mentioned later. Name: Tezcatlipoca, God Of Darkness, God Of Destruction, God Of Ruin, Lord Of The Night Winds, Patron Of Evil Sorcerers, The Dark God, The Jaguar Lord, … [23] Immediately after he died a new victim for the next year's ceremony was chosen. Powers and Stats. While not usually feathered, classic Maya serpent iconography seems related to the belief in a sky-, Venus-, creator-, war- and fertility-related serpent deity. He is now most famous as the rival of his brother, Quetzalcoatl, the Plumed Serpent, whose fall from grace was maneuvered by Tezcatlipoca’s smoke and mirrors. You have graciously arrived, you have known pain, you have known weariness, now come on earth, take your rest, enter into your palace, rest your limbs; may our lords come on earth. [28][29][30][31][32] Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés's letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés goes to great pains to present the naive gullibility of the Aztecs in general as a great aid in his conquest of Mexico. Each temple had a statue of the god for which copal incense was burned four times a day. Angered in turn, he would not make it rain for several years until, in a fit of rage, he made it rain fire with the few people who survived the assault turning into the birds. [27] The young man also was dressed in the likeness of the god and people on the streets would worship him as such when encountered. [20], To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. The legend of Quetzalcoatl is spoofed in the Adult Swim CGI series Xavier: Renegade Angel. She was known as a evil god who fought against Quetzalcoatl. Numerous myths relate how Tezcatlipoca expelled the priest-king Quetzalcóatl, the Feathered Serpent, from the latter’s centre at Tula. (Restall 2001 p. 114)[full citation needed]. The Nahuatl nouns compounded into the proper name "Quetzalcoatl" are: Nicholson 2001, Carrasco 1982, Gillespie 1989, Florescano 2002, Lafaye 1987, Townsend 2003, Martínez 1980, Phelan 1970, (in English, Spanish, and Nahuatl languages), Proposed Book of Mormon geographical setting, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia, The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, "Evidence of Mushroom Worship in Mesoamerica", "New Taxonomical and Ethnomycological Observations on, "Readings in Classical Nahuatl: The Death of Quetzalcoatl", "The Complete New York City Horror Movie Marathon! Beyond it stood a wide, long chamber the size of a great hall...". One purpose of this myth is to validate the Aztec custom of sacrificing live human hearts. Members of this confederacy from Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first reclaimed the city of Cholula from its pro-Aztec ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). In the Aztec ritual calendar, different deities were associated with the cycle-of-year names: Quetzalcoatl was tied to the year Ce Acatl (One Reed), which correlates to the year 1519. One of Tezcatlipoca’s brothers was Quetzalcoatl. [25] Sometimes, slaves were purchased for the ceremony, and in this case, were bathed carefully to erase impurities. In the example from Yaxchilan, the Vision Serpent has the human face of the young maize god, further suggesting a connection to fertility and vegetational renewal; the Maya Young Maize god was also connected to Venus. Two other gods represented by the planet Venus are Quetzalcoatl's ally Tlaloc (the god of rain), and Quetzalcoatl's twin and psychopomp, Xolotl. As discussed above, Aztec folklore is rife with parallels, much of the time depicted in deities such as Tezcatlipoca. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, the god of light, justice, mercy and wind. [21] The king would stand "naked, emphasizing his utter unworthiness," speaking as nothing but a vessel for the god's will. According to Fray Diego Durán it was "lofty and magnificently built. [20] There were several smaller temples dedicated to Tezcatlipoca in the city, among them the ones called "Tlacochcalco" and "Huitznahuatl". Some followers of the Latter Day Saints movement believe that Quetzalcoatl was historically Jesus Christ, but believe his name and the details of the event were gradually lost over time. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of mankind. This confederacy engaged in almost seventy-five years of nearly continuous conflict with the Aztec Empire of the Triple Alliance until the arrival of Cortés. On the basis of the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichén Itzá, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization. After Great Monster Wars, the records and lore about her were buried away by Goddess Ilias. Tezcatlipoca was sometimes cast as the supernatural antagonist of Quetzalcoatl, the deity associated with cultural creativity, urban order, and priestly wisdom. Tezcatlipoca was the son of the god Ometéotl, who was the original creator entity. [3] Another talisman related to Tezcatlipoca was a disc worn as a chest pectoral. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. [26] "The sacrifice itself marked the end of the drought. [citation needed], In the Codex Chimalpopoca, it is said Quetzalcoatl was coerced by Tezcatlipoca into becoming drunk on pulque, cavorting with his older sister, Quetzalpetlatl, a celibate priestess, and neglecting their religious duties. However, a majority of Mesoamericanist scholars, such as Matthew Restall (2003, 2018[33]), James Lockhart (1994), Susan D. Gillespie (1989), Camilla Townsend (2003a, 2003b), Louise Burkhart, Michel Graulich and Michael E. Smith (2003), among others, consider the "Quetzalcoatl/Cortés myth" as one of many myths about the Spanish conquest which have risen in the early post-conquest period. Eventually Quetzalcoatl knocked Tezcatlipoca from the sky with a gigantic stick, and so he became the second sun. He is the 9th of the 13 Lords of the Day and is often associated with the rain god Tláloc. One of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, he is associated with a wide range of concepts, including the night sky, the night winds, hurricanes, the north, the earth, obsidian, enmity, discord, rulership, divination, temptation, jaguars, sorcery, beauty, war, and strife. Tezcatlipoca turned himself into a jaguar and ripped the world apart. With each victory a world age is ended; Tezcatlipoca’svictories signify the end of the second and fourth suns, so that Quetzalcoatl may return at the end of the fifth and final sun to triumph at the ending of the world. According to many Aztec legends, Tezcatlipoca and his brother the god Quetzalcoatl created the world. [23] The young man would spend his last week singing, feasting and dancing. This person deeply regrets that she was defeated in the battle with Tezcatlipoca, while simultaneously, she feels a lot of resentment as a result. The gods Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca brought the earth goddess Tlalteuctli down … [18] When the ritual called for it, priests would also dress up as Tezcatlipoca himself and accompany other similarly outfitted gods or goddesses. The Tezcatlipoca figure goes back to earlier Mesoamerican deities worshipped by the Olmec and Maya. Quetzalcoatl was defeated by Tezcatlipoca… A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethnopolitical groups in Mesoamerican history. Although the exact definition of the momoztli is unknown, with definitions varying from "mound", "stone seat" and "temple", there is an overall consensus that it is a general holy place to worship the gods, specifically mentioned as "his [Tezcatlipoca's] viewing place".[15]. [10] However, the fact that many images are difficult to identify as one god or another does not mean that no generalizations can be made about Tezcatlipoca's appearance. It is also suggested that he was a son of Xochiquetzal and Mixcoatl. The priests of Tezcatlipoca often wore the ornaments of the god and wore specific garments for different rituals. According to the Book of Mormon, the resurrected Jesus Christ descended from heaven and visited the people of the American continent, shortly after his resurrection. In the Aztec creation myth, Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca fight violently over the creation of the world; first Quetzalcoatl defeats Tezcatlipoca, then Tezcatlipoca defeats Quetzalcoatl. [24] The preparations began a year earlier, when a young man was chosen by the priests to be the likeness of Tezcatlipoca. But the history of the former has been handed down to us through an impure Lamanitish source, which has sadly disfigured and perverted the original incidents and teachings of the Savior's life and ministry. His ashes rose into the sky and then his heart followed, becoming the morning star (see Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli).[27]. Feb 19, 2018 - Explore Diego Alvarez's board "Tezcatlipoca", followed by 103 people on Pinterest. [6] Feathered serpent iconography is prominent at all of these sites. Tezcatlipoca and his followers came to Earth from another world thousands of years ago, along with his enemy Quetzalcoatl to monitor the evolution of the human race if mankind had developed on the wrong track here would use their vast powers to destroy the world and permit after its reconstruction, then return to Quetzalcoatl into outer space. Quetzalcoatl was also the patron of the priests and the title of the twin Aztec high priests. Quetzalcoatl went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Cihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound he inflicted on his earlobes, calves, tongue, and penis, to imbue the bones with new life. [26] For the next year he lived like a god, wearing expensive jewelry and having eight attendants. The gods were: Huitzilopochtli (south), Quetzalcoatl (east), Tezcatlipoca (west), and Xipe Tote (north). Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, being ‘creator’ gods and direct sons of the original deity Ometeotl, constantly struggled against each other for power. He is often shown with his right foot replaced with an obsidian mirror, bone, or a snake—an allusion to the creation myth in which he loses his foot battling with the Earth Monster. [5] That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period (400 BC – 600 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology; veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic period (600–900 AD).[6]. The first documented worship of Quetzalcoatl is found in Theotihuacan during the first century BC or first century AD. Quetzalcoatl has been worshiped by all the major Mesoamerican cultures including the Mayans and the Aztecs. The next morning, Quetzalcoatl, feeling shame and regret, had his servants build him a stone chest, adorn him in turquoise, and then, laying in the chest, set himself on fire. The reference is of course to the gods of the invading Nahua tribes, the deities Huitzilopochtli, Titlacahuan or Tezcatlipoca, and Tlacahuepan. See more ideas about aztec art, mesoamerican, aztec warrior. Like Sphinx, she was one of the “Ancient Gods” – great monsters who existed and had been revered in various region in ancient times, though not actual gods. To both Teotihuacan and Maya cultures, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare.[19]. Those people who survived the deluge were turned into fish.[29]. [22] Sacred hymns were also chanted at ceremonies to honor the gods. Finding humanity to have grown violent and irreverent, he seeks to destroy and remake it by the equinox, but he went ahead with Quetzalcoatl 's bet to see if a human would close the gates of the underworld. Some legends describe him as opposed to human sacrifice[24] while others describe him practicing it.[25][26]. Everyone, including commoners, high priests, and the king, were involved in some aspect of the Toxcatl ceremonies.[23]. Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs, the culture hero, Quetzalcoatl. [11] There are also portrayals of his body also being black in certain places. But he had his wife taken away by Tezcatlipoca. [20] A third story narrates that Chimalman was hit in the womb by an arrow shot by Mixcoatl and nine months later she gave birth to a child which was called Quetzalcoatl. The meaning of his local name in other Mesoa… The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus because of this planet's importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth. 14-15. Tezcatlipoca is a character in Onyx Equinox. "[8] Tezcatlipoca appears on the first page of the Codex Borgia carrying the 20 day signs of the calendar; in the Codex Cospi he is shown as a spirit of darkness, as well as in the Codex Laud and the Dresden Codex. 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