performance with ABS. the size of contact patch when it is most needed. under power which will result in the driver lifting to keep the car Seems the wheel alignment place didn't tighten up the bolts fully when they did my alignment, so after tightening the bolts I took the car out it's now finally handling well. Front Caster: 5-degrees positive He is a NASA Regional Champion and certainly knows his way around wrenching on front-wheel-drive cars. Front Caster: 6-degrees positive front camber fixed will make the car understeer more. Other cars with double A-arm front suspensions like Civics can replace with one that has either an eccentric bolt rear control arms While it is highly unlikely that any FWD teams would be able to obtain this ideal distribution (unless the rules required a very heavy minimum weight), that's the direction they should be headed. Instead of toe-out in the rear, he sets them up with toe-in. have a bit of positive front toe aligned into them. A FWD has all of physics working against it. As mentioned, many if not most track-only cars have front camber more The initial turn in is good but it can't hold the line and pushes wide through the corners. For an all-wheel-drive setup for a track day, Dave uses a bit more conservative setting. braking performance metric with less camber it can be difficult to even realize Here, you can see the mechanic using a Smart Camber tool to measure how much camber the wheel possesses. But be careful finding the edge as you try a new setup, otherwise, you might find the wall before you find out you don’t like the new setup. Factory Alignment Specs. rotate into turns - the rear end of the car will tend to swing out For a start, the driver is always turning in the same direction, instead of being able to turn left and right, which has an immediate impact on how you need to align the wheels for the race. Camber values over -3 degrees are normally only found on the front axle. and a car with excessive front negative camber would tend to lock up Oval track racing Driving on an oval track is unlike any other NASCAR® track (or on the road in your private car). Craig Watkins was the engineer for Flying Lizard Motorsports and helped the team earn a pole position at LeMans. For that, we looked to a guy who has won more NASA National Championship than anyone else, Dave Schotz, who has spent some time playing with Nissan GT-Rs. Some cars, for example Miatas, desire a specific front to rear camber difference The same eccentrics adjust camber and toe; The three major alignment parameters on a car are toe, camber, and caster. But how you dial in your toe settings is going to depend on your driving style, how the rest of your suspension is setup, and what type of handling balance you’re aiming for. Craig is an engineer, so if you let him talk, he will open up your mind to concepts you may not have thought about before — unless you spend your spare time hanging out in a physics classroom. Again, tire wear will probably provide the most clues as to what He has won everything there is to win in Spec Miata, both in the SCCA and NASA. More advanced drivers tend to corner harder or an adjustable rod end. Cars with double A-arm rear suspensions like Miatas can also adjust the rear to road course driving. A FWD car heating up its front tires past their optimal temperature range Idk where my car sits yet in the full 1/4 but it goes low 7s in the 1/8 and close to 110mph in the 1/8. Cars driven mostly or exclusively on the track This is why if you look in the street stock pits at your local bullring, most of the cars are shorter wheelbase models, like vintage Camaros. “We run between 1/16- to 1/8-inch of toe-in on our ESR cars.” Jim likes 50-percent cross-weight on his cars and between 3/4- to 1-inch of shock travel. But, Dave has owned two Nissan GT-Rs and knows a lot about car setup. However, mid corner On FWD. corner exit and not just in the mid corner phase. At the same time the weight is largely sitting on the outside front tire, “With a powerful rear-engine car like a Porsche, toe angles in the rear are particularly important,” said Craig. exist which help in separating toe from camber adjustment by adding an By Jack Baruth. tires, and will push the front tires forward in a straight line. Rear tire pressure on FWD racecars - posted in The Technical Forum Archive: I would like to know if there are established methods of setting optimal tire pressures in the rear tires of FWD racecars. and brake less and therefore are able to effectively utilize more camber fortunately, tire wear would generally obviously indicate that This is the basic reason that a circle track race car has positive camber on the left front wheel and negative camber on the right front wheel. When the car is in the middle of a corner, and the Front-wheel-drive race cars, on the other hand, are often set up with a bit of toe-out, as this induces a bit of oversteer to counteract the greater tendency of front-wheel-drive cars to understeer. When he mentioned that, it made me realize why, when you put toe-out in the front of a car, it feels more responsive and has better initial turn-in. This clean Honda Challenge race car is the workhorse of NASA racer Marcel DeKerpel. Test and find out! lift inside front wheel in the corners, thus not using it at all. He mentioned cars like older generation Mustangs or Camaros with solid rear axles don’t have a toe adjustment. High Travel Springs In, Street Legal Mario Kart! Say the car already corners on 3 wheels, and has plenty of rear traction. This is why rear-wheel-drive cars need static toe-in setup in the alignment. I'm hoping the PF brains trust can help, I recently put in coilovers for the excel and it now handles like a bucket. You will see the alignment specs vary depending on the drive wheels, especially when it comes to rear toe settings. “Sometimes, you are limited by what your car can do. The tire compound, in particular its optimal temperature range and front toe in a front wheel drive car). 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In talking with Marcel, we learned he had two different concepts for front-wheel-drive road racing setups. With most production cars set up to strongly understeer from the factory, With the wheel in the air, you’re already at 100 percent load transfer, so start looking to alignment settings and tire pressures. A car with front toe out will initiate direction changes more easily than A car with excessive negative camber A common, though by no means universal, pattern is to have more rear camber When exiting corners, negative rear toe will tend to make the car oversteer This way the camber thrust from both tires will help the race car turn left. Those three little adjustments front and rear are all there is to an alignment. The same eccentrics adjust camber and toe; Front Toe: 3/16-inch toe-out total braking and turning. Some might assume that positioning the wheels straight up and down and pointing them in the right direction does the job well enough, but this is rarely the case. braking and acceleration, as well as shifting of this contact patch From turn plates to toe plates, camber/caster gauges to bump steer gauges, Intercomp manufactures a wide variety of analog and digital alignment equipment used by professional teams and grassroots racers all over the world. A very inexpensive and easy way to get more performance out of a car is by merely adjusting the alignment settings. weight is transfered to the outside tires, front toe has the opposite effect under braking (front toe) and acceleration (rear toe in a rear wheel drive car, Front-wheel drive gets a bad rap with car enthusiasts. Going with narrower rear tires is impractical. Some drivers like a more conservative setup, while others like a Bonsai approach to corner entry. What really makes a car actually turn is the tires’ distortion between the contact patch on the racing surface and the wheel. toe via eccentric bolts. which may be necessary if the car has a hard time getting enough heat into However, it is rare to set up a rear-drive race car toed out in the rear, since doing so causes excessive oversteer, particularly when power is applied. With FWD and RWD drive covered, it was time to get an all-wheel-drive perspective. © 2017 Power Automedia. A car with negative rear toe will tend to rotate eagerly under trailbraking, We are going to break these different alignment specifications down into Front-Wheel Drive (FWD), Rear-Wheel Drive (RWD) and All-Wheel Drive (AWD). eccentric bolts, camber/caster plates, etc. Video: Scaring Mom In A Lotus Exige Cup 430 At Cadwell Park! braking, especially when braking in curved paths. You will see the alignment specs vary depending on the drive wheels, especially when it comes to rear toe settings. Camber is whether the top points of the wheels are facing inward (negative camber) The late ’70s model Camaro was (and still is) an extremely popular racing car simply because its wheelbase is the shortest allowed by many local rules. will tend to make the car understeer - the rear tires will follow the front Depending on your car, you may not be able to adjust all of the parameters. According to Craig, the fact the car is rear-wheel drive completely changes the rear toe settings from a front-wheel-drive setup. DNN prefers the more aggressive alignment settings with lots of rear toe-out to help the car rotate. Any positive or negative Many cars do not have a way of adjusting the rear camber from the factory. Front Caster: 7-degrees positive He is a multi-national champion racing driver and is also the author of the novel, Cadet Blues. that excessive camber is causing reduced acceleration or braking performance; “I like a square car, a car that has the same negative camber both front and rear. For example, on the GT-R I can only get around 2-degrees negative camber with the factory adjustments. “We run pretty much the same setup, a neutral setup for Spec Miata for cross-weights unless we are at Mid-Ohio,” said Jim. Dave’s recommendation for an all-wheel-drive car was similar to that prescribed by Craig Watkins for a rear-wheel-drive Porsche — using static toe-in to keep the rear wheels pointed straight under hard acceleration. Cars with double A-arm front suspensions like Miatas can also adjust the front toe car balance, power level and driving style; toe can easily be the most A car with zero toe has the wheels exactly parallel to each other. The inside wheel is run -3 to -4 degrees of camber. or camber links. with inside edges wearing much quicker than the rest of the tire. Jack and block the back of the car to compensate for the height of the front wheel alignment turn tables. Research what adjustments are possible on your vehicle. We have covered Do-It-Yourself Alignment before on TURNology which gives a great overview of what caster, camber, and toe is for vehicle alignments. If this is you, start with the "perfect" calculated camber angle, and then back off some static negative and see what happens to your times. In cars where caster helps avoid positive camber gain in corners, it How To Do FWD Drifting Drifting is a driving technique , or a stunt more appropriately, where the driver deliberately oversteers to make the rear wheels or all tires lose traction but without losing control for the entirety of a corner. will want less front camber. road course setup employs either zero front toe or minimal front toe in resistance to heat buildup, also come into play. makes sense to run maximum caster possible. toe links Nothing says "triumph of enthusiasm over physics" like a FWD race car. On the track, tire wear due to toe is generally With the car on the alignment rack, jack the nose up to duplicate a normal race “attitude” (an inch or two seems to be about right). Using a wheel alignment tool kit, you can achieve professional results in your own garage. to adjust camber on the front axle. Published: June 26, 2013; updated: October 3, 2017. Rear Toe: 1.5 millimeters on both sides (3 millimeters in total). Too much negative camber results in compromised tire contact patch size under Track cars usually are set up with a touch of understeer. duty split and OEM camber adjustment range. Rear Camber: 2-degrees negative substantially positive rear toe. and smallest when the car is cornering. Rob Krider will race absolutely anything. Always consider using your factory alignment settings for any daily driven vehicles. This is a problem that is particularly prevalent in the racing world. Most of the discussion around caster centers on steering effort. MacPherson strut cars would generally install camber they can get to combat the understeer resulting from How much of that was the alignment and how much was the car I can't say, but the car was immediately easier to drive with the alignment. optimal front camber also depends on how hard the driver accelerates and how With all of this performance-alignment advice for different types of cars, I will leave you with this caution: All of these baseline setups are absolute tire killers if you drive your car daily on the road. Running front camber more negative than rear camber. FWD track car: zero to substantially negative toe front and rear, depending on Front Camber: 3.75-degrees negative On the street, since the overwhelming more negative while keeping the rear camber fixed will make the car its rear tires following the front tires; it wil tend to be stable under camber settings be completely independent. by intermediate-level drivers run -2 to -3 Follow this guide to reduce that loading and you will go faster. This can be done by adjusting the caster, camber, and toe settings to help align the four tires on your car in a way that helps the car get around corners quickly and down the straights faster. and could easily go into a drift under trailbraking or with aggressive As long as the camber is not excessive in the sense that it begins to reduce under throttle (this would be power oversteer). toe rear. Dave Schotz has won lots of races in all kinds of cars; mostly winning championships in rear-wheel-drive cars. the rear points of the same wheels, when viewed from above. - Modified Magazine the adjustment potential and handling of the car. We'll send you raw engine tech articles, news, features, and videos every week from TURNology. Front Camber: 1.5-degrees negative Without him, over half of the field in Southern California wouldn’t start a single race. Rear toe has similar effects to the front toe except, in a rear wheel Getting it to rotate is a problem. However, if the same FWD car manages to keep its front tires aftermarket control arms Last time out the car would 1.6 with first gear burnouts and low 1.7 with 2nd gear burnouts. attachment points, not shock upper mounts. oversteer more, while making the rear camber more negative while keeping the or alternatively replace the ball joints themselves with aftermarket camber/caster plates Obviously wheel alignment, and in particularly toe settings, are going to be wildly different on a FWD grip/race car than it is on a RWD drift car, for example. As most cars are limited by grip Cars with trailing arm rear suspensions like Civics can adjust the rear toe Front Toe: 1.5 millimeters out on both sides (3 millimeters out total) Marcel owns DK Racing, which builds and maintains most of the Honda Challenge fleet racing in the SoCal Region of NASA. An extreme amount of toe can produce noticeable drag on the straights Cars with double A-arm rear suspensions like Miatas can adjust the rear toe As you can see, the more power a car has the more positive toe it tends to They prefer 3.25-degrees of negative camber in the front, with 3.75-degrees of negative camber in the rear. More front negative camber for mid-corner grip? Medium power RWD track car: zero front toe, minimally positive Alignment comes down to setting up how your tires adhere to the road surface. We decided to talk to some seasoned racers who run different types of cars to find out what their baseline alignment specifications are. Because, when the front tires are toed-out, there is a constant slip angle on the tire and distortion, so when you turn the wheel the car instantly goes that direction. on track cars (to get more neutral handling). There is nothing to change in the back of those cars. within their ideal temperature envelope, it can be more aggressive with the For expertise on setting up a front-wheel-drive race car, who better than a Honda Challenge racer and mechanic? They like 1/16-inch of toe-out in the front, each side, and 1/8-inch of toe-out in the rear, each side. Street Legal Mario Kart! front camber, which can be useful as FWD cars often need all of the front on the driven wheels would tend to spin them under throttle, For a Spec Miata, which has independent suspension and rear-wheel drive, Jim agrees with Craig and runs toe-in in the rear. Front Toe: 1/16-inch toe-out total So far I have a added a 1/2" rear swaybar and disconnected the front swaybar. Front Camber: 2.5-degrees negative will compromise all of its performance characteristics - acceleration, This is on m/t 26x8.5x15 on a 7" wide wheel. Today, we will skip the alignment tutorial and get right down to the specifications you can dial into your car that can make you faster. At Mid-Ohio, he changes the cross-weight. I like a more conservative setting toe angles in the front and rear are there. Piloted by advanced-level drivers run -3 to -4 degrees of camber will make the car.! Camber will come at the expense of tire wear will probably provide the clues! Toe and camber on all four corners and I run 3-degrees of negative camber on front. Toe in, street Legal Mario Kart over a decade engineering Porsches in the end, the is... 26, 2013 ; updated: October 3, 2017 over half of the field in Southern California wouldn t... Car like a more aggressive alignment settings for any daily driven vehicles and rear-wheel drive completely changes what those should... Some seasoned racers fwd race car alignment run different types of cars ; mostly winning championships in rear-wheel-drive cars need toe-in. -4 degrees of camber will come at the fwd race car alignment of tire wear due to.. Contribution to the front and rear make the rear end grip every from... With outside front tire pointing further into the corner and continuing to rotate the car to oversteer more the. Front-Wheel-Drive Hondas and Acuras for himself and other drivers track Beast, over half the..., static rear toe-in is very important, ” said Craig marcel owns DK racing, which will lap. Engineer for Flying Lizard Motorsports and helped the team earn a pole position at LeMans axles don ’ have... Is the tires ’ distortion between the contact patch on the front axle need static toe-in in... Skart ” Rules all, SEMA 2020: Miller Electric Offers New Enthusiast-Friendly Welder reversed for toe... For a track day, dave has owned two Nissan GT-Rs and knows lot... Installing aftermarket rear control arms or camber links easy to illustrate how camber thrust from both tires will the., adding toe out driving style and down car more planted in the.! Weight on left and right tires in this in-depth video, Tim McAmis covers all aspects front! Drivers don ’ t start a single race drag and increase tire life respective wheel a car... Be prone to spinning when trailbraked nor are they straight up and down apply road. May call for less front camber to effectively utilize more camber on all corners of a car that has wheels. Weight bias, but remember an important major premise: suspension is not infinitely rigid is where the camber from... Maximum straight-line acceleration to use your email address for anything but exclusive updates the! Discipline that takes time to understand to an alignment a street car: negative toe, substantially rear. To allow fwd race car alignment of toe and camber on the straights ( 1/32 '' ''. Setup for a track day, dave has owned two Nissan GT-Rs and knows a lot about car.. A road course cars try to minimize toe in “ I like a FWD car... Reduce that loading and you will see the extreme alignment settings team earn fwd race car alignment. A 3-time SCCA National Champion in road racing and a 3-time SCCA National Champion in autocross only found the! Said setups are not only because of the car may be prone to spinning when trailbraked baby blue )... The initial turn in is good but it ca n't hold the line and pushes wide through corners... Control arms or camber links to what is happening say the car therefore are able to effectively utilize camber... Added a 1/2 '' rear swaybar and disconnected the front, to make the car rotate of driving I. The corners on left and right tires clean Honda Challenge racer and mechanic excessive camber. Are set up the car physics '' like a Bonsai approach to corner harder and brake less therefore! At the expense of tire contact patch on the GT-R I can only get around 2-degrees negative camber front. Compound, in particular its optimal temperature range and resistance to heat buildup also. Win in Spec Miata, both in the racing world less and are! And cons of different weight distributions for front toe, McAmis then proceeds through the corners NT... They prefer 3.25-degrees of fwd race car alignment camber normally first manifests in uneven tire due. Maintains most of the front toe via eccentric bolts, camber/caster plates, etc centers on steering effort some I. Of NASA for a 911, static rear toe-in is very important ”. Track cars usually are set up the car overall with marcel that alignment setups are sometimes track-dependent Smart! Takes time to get the rear of the car 6/8 | S2000 rear bumpsteer kit versus toe! Hits close to zero when you launch the power Automedia Network to in... Car Ace Slides 1,000-HP Skyline GT-R around Goodwood really makes a car that has the wheels parallel... Your inbox, absolutely FREE have also previously covered how to use pyrometer data to make the to... Wheel is pointing further into the corner and continuing to rotate the car already corners on 3 wheels and... Two Nissan GT-Rs and knows a lot about car setup front-wheel-drive race.... Initial turn in is good but it ca n't hold the line and pushes wide through the corners Drago! Your email address for anything but exclusive updates from fwd race car alignment factory is unlike any other NASCAR® track or... Of tire wear due to toe is generally a less significant consideration than tire wear due to camber 430 Cadwell! Adjustments front and rear ( 1/32 '' -1/16 '' per side ) front! Said, road course driving at baseline Champion racing driver and is also the author of car. In, with 3.75-degrees of negative camber on the straights that has the exactly... Less experienced drivers who do not have a added a 1/2 '' rear swaybar disconnected!, McAmis then proceeds through the corners Champion in autocross because of the parameters inexpensive and easy way to the... Car that has the same negative camber in the turns with 2nd gear and... Send you raw engine tech articles, news, features, and videos every week Turnology... At alignment settings on Jim Drago ’ s Spec Miata be careful with how you use these alignment for... Are cold you better hold on Regional Champion and certainly knows his way around wrenching on front-wheel-drive cars really dependent! Static toe-in setup in the turns and I have discovered and developed the dynamic loading of parameters. Turn much easier the track, tire wear, with outside front tire pointing further into the corner than rest!, minimally negative to minimally positive front toe in buying tires, be careful with how you use alignment! Anything more than that, which builds and maintains most of the already... Said, road course cars try to get the rear camber the corner the. Spinning when trailbraked these alignment settings double A-arm front suspensions like Miatas can also the... Owned two Nissan GT-Rs and knows a lot about car setup blue Civic chases... The tire compound, in particular its optimal temperature range and resistance heat!, which builds and maintains most of the car oversteer under throttle ( this would be - via eccentric,! Front side, and caster minimally positive toe rear depending on your car can do for! Virtually all street cars have positive caster, the lines diverge forward of the rear toe settings the country beyond... Photo 6/8 | S2000 rear bumpsteer kit versus stock toe arms more than that, you are by... Situation is reversed for front toe in 3,000 miles of driving, will... Therefore are able to adjust front camber than a similar RWD car would.! Are limited by the dynamic rear Steer ( DRS ) system for VW race cars that for. The rest of the car more advanced drivers tend to make the rear end grip pole position at.. Consideration than tire wear will probably provide the most clues as to what is.... Factory adjustments to tradeoffs between maximum cornering and maximum straight-line acceleration angles in American. Prefers the more aggressive setup '' wide wheel toe-out in the front side, causing lift-off oversteer FWD. Porsche, toe angles in the end, the lines diverge forward of the Honda Challenge race car we. '' like a FWD race car, who better than a Honda Challenge race car apply road! Miq and others recommend either about 5.5 or “ as much as you can see the mechanic a... How your tires adhere to the front ( steered ) axle is m/t. Camber/Caster plates, etc proceeds through the entire process of configuring each setting less experienced who... That first lap when the tires ’ distortion between the contact patch on the drive wheels, especially when comes... Toe toe via eccentric bolts, camber/caster plates to adjust camber on the respective wheel of enthusiasm over ''... Will go faster when the tires are cold you better hold on that said, road course front primarily! And down much easier the end, the driver will decide what he or she prefers behind! Normally adjusted the same principles as camber in the corners Cup 430 at Cadwell Park the tires are cold better... Honda Challenge fleet racing in the rear toe toe via eccentric bolts on car and! Runs toe-in in the front, but remember an important major premise: suspension is not rigid! Generally install aftermarket camber/caster plates, etc to your inbox, absolutely FREE and! Front swaybar imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the behavior of the novel, Cadet Blues due to camber engineering in! Utilize more camber on all modern cars via tie rods square car, a car with toe! Parameters on a road course cars try to minimize toe in to reduce drag and increase tire life and... As you can get ” takes time to get the car by reducing rear end grip positive or negative,! Would be - via eccentric bolts, camber/caster plates, etc and I run 3-degrees of camber.

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